I knew that Mondragon was not the first 20th century attempt to successfully use group entrepreneurship and worker cooperatives on a large scale to systematically create jobs and enterprises. That honor should go to the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives, more commonly know as “INDUSCO” or “Gung Ho,” founded in 1938, eighteen years earlier than Mondragon.
INDUSCO was initiated and promoted by a young woman, Helen Foster Snow, who was originally from Salt Lake City, Utah. She lived in China with her husband, Edgar Snow, from 1932 to 1939.
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