The current energy bonanza based on fossil fuels cannot go on forever. Climate change reasons apart, fossil fuels are not inexhaustible, even if new extraction methods such as fracking are used to eke out dwindling supplies.

To gain insights on how successful and sustainable cooperatives operate, 16 participants from collector organisations and six Forest Protection Department (FPD) staff went on a visit to the company Sapa Napro in the Lao Cai Province in December.

In this Article, I attempt to build an empathy bridge between readers and a group of undocumented immigrants living in the American southwest, applying original qualitative research to scarcity theory.


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